Star Reading Score Definitions

Estimated Oral Reading Fluency (Est. ORF)

Estimated Oral Reading Fluency is an estimate of a student’s ability to read words quickly and accurately in order to comprehend text efficiently. Students with oral reading fluency demonstrate accurate decoding, automatic word recognition and appropriate use of the rhythmic aspects of language (e.g., intonation, phrasing, pitch and emphasis).

Estimated ORF is reported in correct words per minute, and is based on the correlation between Star Reading performance and a recent study that measured student oral reading using a popular assessment. Estimated ORF is only reported for students in Years 2–5.

Normed Referenced Standardised Score (NRSS)

The Normed Referenced Standardised Score is an age standardised score that converts a student’s "raw score" to a standardised score which takes into account the student’s age in years and months and gives an indication of how the student is performing relative to a national sample of students of the same age. The average score is 100. A higher score is above average and a lower score is below average.

Percentile Rank (PR)

Percentile Ranks range from 1–99 and express student ability relative to the scores of other students of a similar age. For a particular student, this score indicates the percentage of students in the norms group who obtained lower scores. For example, if a student has a PR of 85, the student’s reading skills are greater than 85% of other students of a similar age.

Reading Age

The Reading Age (RA) indicates the typical reading age for an individual with a given value of the Star Reading Scaled Score. This provides an estimate of the chronological age at which students typically obtain that score. The RA score is an approximation based on the demonstrated relationship between Star Reading and other tests of student reading ability, which were normed in the UK. RA scores are transformations of the Star Reading Scaled Score.

The scale is expressed in the following form: YY:MM, where YY indicates the reading age in years and MM the months. For example, an individual who has obtained a reading age of 7:10 would be estimated to be reading as well as the average individual at 7 years, 10 months of age.

Scaled Score

The Scaled Score is the most fundamental score produced by Star Reading tests. It ranges from 0 to 1400 and spans years 1–13. It is calculated based on the difficulty of the questions and the number of correct responses. Scaled Scores are useful for comparing student performance over time and across years.

Zone of Proximal Development

The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) suggests the readability-level range from which a student should be selecting books for optimal growth in reading without frustration. The ZPD is especially useful for students using Accelerated Reader. The ZPD, however, is approximate. Success with any book also depends on the student’s interest and prior knowledge of a book’s content. Teachers should use their professional judgment to adjust the level of books read to match an individual student’s needs and interests.