Star Reading Score Definitions
Estimated Oral Reading Fluency (Est. ORF)
Estimated Oral Reading Fluency is an estimate of a student’s ability to read
words quickly and accurately in order to comprehend text efficiently. Students
with oral reading fluency demonstrate accurate decoding, automatic word
recognition and appropriate use of the rhythmic aspects of language (e.g.,
intonation, phrasing, pitch and emphasis).
Estimated ORF is reported in correct words per minute, and is based on the
correlation between Star Reading performance and a recent study that
measured student oral reading using a popular assessment. Estimated ORF is
only reported for students in Years 2–5.
Normed Referenced Standardised Score (NRSS)
The Normed Referenced Standardised Score is an age standardised score that
converts a student’s "raw score" to a standardised score which takes into
account the student’s age in years and months and gives an indication of how
the student is performing relative to a national sample of students of the same
age. The average score is 100. A higher score is above average and a lower
score is below average.
Percentile Rank (PR)
Percentile Ranks range from 1–99 and express student ability relative to the
scores of other students of a similar age. For a particular student, this score
indicates the percentage of students in the norms group who obtained lower
scores. For example, if a student has a PR of 85, the student’s reading skills are
greater than 85% of other students of a similar age.
The Reading Age (RA) indicates the typical reading age for an individual with a
given value of the Star Reading Scaled Score. This provides an estimate of the
chronological age at which students typically obtain that score. The RA score
is an approximation based on the demonstrated relationship between Star
Reading and other tests of student reading ability, which were normed in the
UK. RA scores are transformations of the Star Reading Scaled Score.
The scale is expressed in the following form: YY:MM, where YY indicates the
reading age in years and MM the months. For example, an
individual who has obtained a reading age of 7:10 would be estimated to be
reading as well as the average individual at 7 years, 10 months of age.
The Scaled Score is the most fundamental score produced
by Star Reading tests. It ranges from 0 to 1400 and spans
years 1–13. It is calculated based on the difficulty of the
questions and the number of correct responses. Scaled
Scores are useful for comparing student performance over
time and across years.
Zone of Proximal Development
The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) suggests the
readability-level range from which a student should be
selecting books for optimal growth in reading without
frustration. The ZPD is especially useful for students using
Accelerated Reader. The ZPD, however, is approximate.
Success with any book also depends on the student’s
interest and prior knowledge of a book’s content.
Teachers should use their professional judgment to adjust
the level of books read to match an individual student’s
needs and interests.